Arbitrary or Unlawful Deprivation of Life There were no reports that the government or its agents committed arbitrary or unlawful killings. Disappearance There were no reports of politically motivated disappearances. Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment The law prohibits mistreatment of prisoners, and there were no reports of such mistreatment.
Although tiny Brunei was a British protectorate until 1984, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah became absolute ruler of his country in 1967, meaning he has been monarch and head of government there ever since.
In 2006, he changed Brunei's constitution, declaring himself infallible. Brunei has productive oil and gas fields, and it is an open secret that much of the profit from them flows through the pockets of the Sultan and his family.
Historically, the Malay population is descended primarily from the earlier Malayic-speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Kedah, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Chi Tu, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pahang, Melayu and Srivijaya.
The advent of the Malacca Sultanate in the 15th century triggered a major revolution in Malay history, the significance of which lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy.
Brunei, although occupying less than 1% of Borneo’s land area, is the only sovereign country on the island, which it shares with the Indonesian provinces of West, East, South and Central Kalimantan and the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak.
Climate Located close to the equator, Brunei Darussalam enjoys moderate equatorial climate throughout the year with temperatures ranging from 23o C to 32o C.
Bandar Seri Begawan is the center of Brunei’s commerce, finance, and government.
A fusion of majestic opulence and traditional respect.
The golden age of the Malay sultanates in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo saw many of their inhabitants, particularly from various tribal communities like the Batak, Dayak, Orang Asli and the Orang laut become subject to Islamisation and Malayisation.
Today, some Malays have recent forebears from other parts of Maritime Southeast Asia, termed as anak dagang ("traders") and who predominantly consist of Javanese people, Bugis, Minangkabau people and Acehnese peoples, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other countries.
Common definitive markers of a Malayness – the religion of Islam, the Malay language and traditions – are thought to have been promulgated during this era, resulting in the ethnogenesis of the Malay as a major ethnoreligious group in the region.